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Page 4 of part2: Only one pair of parents: Scientific Adam and Scientific Eve


Άρ. The search for our ancestors’ DNA sequence from modern humans’ DNA sequence


After nearly 20 years of debate, some scholars in genetics finally accept the research results from molecular anthropology. In the book “Principles of Genetics” written by the famous geneticists, Professor D. Peter Snustad and Michael J Simmons from the University of Minnesota, they wrote:


“By analyzing sequences from living individuals, it is possible to work back to the ancestral sequence from which all the existing sequences could have sprung. This ancestral sequence represents the point at which the lineages of the living individuals coalesce into one individual, the common ancestor of them all. Then, by counting the number of mutations that occurred between the ancestral DNA sequence and the current sequences, and by dividing this number by the known mutation rate, it is possible to calculate the time that has elapsed since the common ancestor existed.” “Thus, the coalescent principle suggests that all modern humans are descended from maternal and paternal common ancestors who lived between 100,000 and 200,000 years ago. “

(Book: “Principles of Genetics” by  D. Peter Snustad, Michael J. Simmons, the textbook for University of California, University of Minnesota and other seven university , p 757).


(This textbook is an outstanding introductory text in genetics. It is quite popular and used by many universities such as the University of Minnesota, UCLA, Georgia State University, State University of New York-Buffalo, University of Maryland, Penn State University and University of Michigan.)


The authors did say that from “sequences from living individuals” one can trace the “common ancestors” of modern humans. Obviously, the “sequences from living individuals” mentioned here refers to “Adam genetic marker” on the Y chromosome which includes the 729 DNA coding on the ZFY gene (Please refer to page 1 of this part) and “Eve genetic marker” on the mitochondrial DNA, the string of mitochondrial Eve’s “necklaces” i.e. 16569 original mitochondrial DNA coding (Please see page 2 of this part). The “common ancestors(please note the s)” are the Y chromosome Adam and mitochondrial Eve.


Figure 2-16 A diagram from “Principles of Genetics”: The search for our ancestors’ DNA sequence from the DNA sequence of modern humans.


Άς. Questions regarding the Y-chromosome Adam and mitochondrial Eve


However, in the common understanding concerning the aforementioned “the common ancestors several thousands of years ago”, there exist many questions which demand answers.  In the textbook, the authors state: " However, these results do not indicate that the two men in that distant era of the only living person. Almost certainly, there are many other people living in that era."” Their genetic lineages—mitochondrial in the case of females and Y chromosomal in the case of males—simply became extinct.” Yet, the two persons were “lucky enough”.


We can attribute all these concerns to answers of the following questions:


1. Those individuals who lived at the same time period as Y-chromosome Adam and mitochondrial Eve, did they have the same genetic markers as Y-chromosome Adam and mitochondrial Eve?

If they did possess “the same genetic markers as Y-chromosome Adam and mitochondrial Eve”, then, the answer is simple. We can then be certain that there were many similar individuals like Y-chromosome Adam and mitochondrial Eve who were their brothers, sisters, or cousins. We can call them the “common ancestors of mankind” just as all the people living on earth today with the same genetic markers as mitochondrial Eve and men with the genetic markers of Y-chromosome Adam. Yet, we all came from a “common ancestors” 200,000 years ago.


2. If the answer to the aforementioned question is “No”: those individuals living at the same time as Y-chromosome Adam and mitochondrial Eve all have their own genetic markers. We can call them “individuals not from the same ancestors as Y chromosome Adam or mitochondrial Eve” or simply “individuals with different ancestors”. Only because in subsequent inheritance either without male or female descendants, the genetic markers did not pass on to now.


Here exists another question:  since “their mitochondrial and chromosomal genetic lineages did not pass on until to present time” what evidence do you have that they once existed? Since it is impossible to find DNA evidence of their existence, how can one believe that they “once existed”? How to resolve the debate:” They left behind other genes”?


Just because we did not discover those” other genetic lineages left behind by them (i.e. not from the same ancestors), therefore we can say that those people never existed and you say that there were these people. You don’t have any evidence to prove the existence of these people. I, too, cannot prove the existence either. Is this debate unsolvable? The answer is this: there is and the proof could be found on the autosome.


The saying that “they left behind other genes” refers to a couple with just daughters and no sons and therefore the Y chromosome from the father is for even lost. If the couple just has sons and no daughters, then the mother’s mitochondrial inheritance is forever lost.


However, this couple’s autosomes are inherited by either their sons or daughters. Therefore, the children’s autosomes must contain DNA evidence from their parents.


Here, the only way to resolve this debate is this: we must find a genetic marker on the autosome and without exception that everybody on earth has this genetic marker.


III. Mankind’s DNA “first genetic marker” on the autosome


1. “The first genetic marker” is the marker which confirms mankind’s kinship


Is there such a genetic marker on the autosome? Fortunately, there is. Moreover, it resembles the” genetic marker on the Y chromosome” (729 DNA coding letters). This autosomal genetic marker has 789 coding letter and is located on chromosome 2’s 2q13 to 2q14 (autosome 2 long arm region 13 to 14.1). We can call it “ mankind’s first genetic marker” (abbreviated “the first genetic marker”) or “ the autosomal genetic marker”.


If the autosomes from everybody on earth contain the same “the first genetic marker” and no men or women without this genetic marker, then regardless of whether “not from the same ancestors” people ever existed on earth, there is no kinship with people now living on earth. The reason is that in our blood do not contain any of their ingredients. For example, even though Java man, Peking Man, Neanderthal man etc once had existed on earth, however, they were not the ancestors of modern humans but only apes unrelated to us.


Άτ. From scientific Adam and Eve to us and to the future

Who were the ancestors of Y chromosome Adam and mitochondrial Eve? It would not be difficult to arrive at a conclusion after the discussions and thoughts we had previously: the Y chromosome Adam and mitochondrial Eve were the descendants of the one and only pair of parent. The pair of parents was mankind’s first male and female. We could call them as “scientific Adam” and “scientific Eve”. From my and your blood, we found them to be our origin.


If we combine the content of part 5 concerning Africa being the birthplace of mankind, we can imagine that “scientific Adam” and “scientific Eve” once lived in Africa as well. Subsequently, humans develop until the present time and yet the difference in our DNA between us and them is merely 0.5 thousandths. From DNA one cannot see the evolution, even microevolution, of mankind. In accordance with this rate of change, we can predict with certainty that after another 200,000 years the DNA difference between us and future humans will be less than one thousandths. Our descendants will not be that different from us.



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